Associations in the Greco-Roman World (AGRW)

An expanding collection of inscriptions, papyri, and other sources in translation (run by Philip A. Harland)

Letters of Hadrian to the Synod of Dionysiac Performers (133/134 CE) Alexandreia Troas - Mysia and the Troad

Alexandreia Troas (Mysia and the Troad, Asia Minor — Pleiades map), 133/134 CE
Georg Petzl and Elmar Schwertheim, Hadrian und die dionysischen Künstler. Drei in Alexandria Troas neugefundene Briefe des Kaisers an die Künstler-Vereinigung (Asia Minor Studien, 58. Bonn: Habelt, 2006) = Christopher P. Jones, "Three New Letters of the Emperor Hadrian," ZPE 161 (2007) 145-156 (Eng. translation) = SEG 56 (2006), 1359 = PHI 313115 = AGRW ID# 6786
Copenhagen Inventory info: 991


Rectangular stone (181 x 90 x 9 cm) with moulding and a pediment; found in the area of the Odeion at Alexandreia Troas (in August 2003), broken in 16 adjoining pieces. The monument collects three separate letters by the emperor Hadrian to the synod.

(Letter 1)

With good fortune. Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, son of god Trajan, victorious in Parthia, grandson of god Nerva, greatest high-priest (pontifex maximus), with tribunician power for the 18th time, proclaimed emperor (imperator) for the second time, consul for the third time, father of his country, to the traveling musical synod (synodos) of performers (technitai) associated with Dionysos and victorious in sacred and crowned contests, greetings.

(Necessity for all contests to be held and all prizes awarded)

I order that all the contests be held, and that it not be permitted for a city to divert funds of a contest held according to law, decree or will to other expenses, nor do I permit to be used on the construction of a building (10) money from which prizes are offered to contestants or from which contributions are given to victors. If it should ever be urgent that a city find some source of revenue, not for the purpose of luxury and extravagance, but as when I have procured wheat (or: in order to procure wheat) in a shortage, then let me be written to. But without my permission let no one be permitted to take these funds earmarked for the contests for anything (i.e. any purpose) of this kind, for it involves not only unfairness but in a certain way even a fraud, to announce a contest and invite the contestants and then — after their arrival either immediately or at the beginning or after holding some parts of the contest — to dissolve the festival half-way. And where this happens, the contestants shall divide up the prizes even without contesting. I order this not only as something just but, in the same way as it is necessary to hold the contests, so it is necessary for this (i.e. the festival) to take place. And if anybody proposes any such thing, or puts it to the vote, or busies himself with the building, I shall summon him to give an account for having eluded my dispositions in order that he undergo the appropriate punishment. I have written to the Milesians and the Chians to restore to you the contests which they omitted.

(Prizes and contributions)

In the matter of the prizes and the contributions, you rightly make complaint. (20) For I myself know that those in the cities who administer such matters, unless they take something themselves, deprive the athletes of what is owed to them. As for the prizes, the procedure shall be as follows. In general some official of ours (i.e. a Roman) is present at the contests. The director of contests (agonothetēs) of each contest shall count over the money for the prize to the governor of the province, or the proconsul, or quaestor, or legate, or whoever is the person attending, one day before each entry, and he shall place it in a bag, seal it, and place it beside the crown, whether the category is artistic or athletic, and the victor immediately after the victory shall receive it (i.e. the money) together with the crown with everybody watching. As for the contributions, they shall be given to the sacred victors according to the fixed dates, and a magistrate or steward of public moneys who does not give it shall pay out in addition one and a half times to the sacred victor. Let the contribution be in simple cash, since the cities did not promise wheat or wine to the contestants, nor is it right that they should become retailers as well as being wronged.


If it should be necessary to whip a contestant, let there be whip-bearers chosen by lot for the purpose, and let them approach in pairs in whatever order they may happen to have been allotted, first or second, and if necessary third. (30) For there must be some deterrent hanging over the contestants and those who err must be corrected, but not so that they are beaten by many persons at once, and only on their legs, and so that no-one be crippled or incur any injury from which he will be worse at his profession itself.

(Particular rulings concerning finances)

I have sent the written accounts of the Corinthians to the proconsul, requesting that he examine their contents as soon as possible and determine, insofar as the public means allow, whether it is fitting for the sacred victors to receive two thirds or half. But until the Corinthians give information about their accounts, they shall give the two thirds. That the musicians (mousikoi) should contribute a hundredth (i.e. 1%) to what is given to the leaders of the athletes (xystarchai) – what plausible reason does that have? Or what is there in common between the performers and the leaders of the athletes? How would it not have been equally illogical if the governors of the musicians also expected to receive a hundredth from the athletes? But let the athletes give the fixed hundredths, for they have something in common with the leaders of the athletes, since they both share in their profession and compete under their direction. The deficit in what is paid to the leaders of the athletes it is right either for the cities that organize the contests to make up (and the expense is not heavy, coming every fourth year) or else for the directors of contests that have the crowns and the purple. But I have written to the common Assembly of Asia both so that they deliberate (40) about this, and that they determine sources from which the future deficit caused by the subtraction of the performers’ one hundredths will be given to the leaders of the athletes. About the trumpeters and heralds: I have written to the Ephesians so that they are not compelled to put up statues from their own funds, if you put up statues for these too from the proceeds of the lands that Nysios left. There were certain persons with experience of local circumstances (or: there were certain of the locals) who said that, if the necessary care of the estates takes place and an exact investigation of the accounts, there will be some surplus money. I have also written Publius Marcellus, my excellent friend and the governor of Syria, so that he ensures that the cash-prizes of the contest held in Apamea, which you say that Alexianos withheld when acting as director of contests, be duly paid to the victors. 1 have also written to the councils of the provinces indicating that the Ephesians have distributed the categories in the Balbilleian contests between two contests, and that those who win the Hadrianeian contests there must receive the contributions as they received them when they won the Balbilleian contests. This has also been written to Petronius Mamertinus, my friend and the prefect of Egypt, so that there too payment is to be made to victors in the Hadrianeia of Ephesus. Let your existing freedom from liturgies and from tax be confirmed, but it is humane for athletes and performers who die, since they spend their whole life absent abroad, to be released from the taxes on burials. The contributions following victories are due not from the day on which someone drove in to his city, (50) but from the day when the letter about the victory is delivered to their home cities. Those hurrying on to other contests are also allowed to send the letter. Those who contribute according to the rules of the synod, even if they stop practicing and become Romans, shall be bound by the same rules under which they contributed.

(Publication, selection-competitions, courts)

I order that the rules of the contests be written up at the time of each festival, so that nothing that has been forbidden be done out of ignorance. In the selection-competitions it will not be permitted for a fellow-citizen to speak in support, since it is believed that the selections are made unfair by the influence of the locals. The customary courts concerning punishments shall be established according to the rules in force in each place. The governors of the province shall ensure in each place that all this is done as I have arranged, but I permit you also to inscribe them on monuments (stelai) wherever you wish, so that they may be known to everyone. Farewell.


(Letter 2, beginning at line 57)

Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, son of god Trajan Parthicus, grandson of god Nerva, greatest high-priest (pontifex maximus), with tribunician power for the 18th time, proclaimed emperor (imperator) for the second time, consul for the third time, father of his country, to the traveling musical synod of performers (technitai) associated with Dionysos and victorious in sacred and crowned contests, greetings.

(General ordering of the major festivals)

(60) How I decided that the contests should be arranged about which there were speeches and petitions before me in Neapolis (i.e. Naples) I have indicated to you and I am writing to the provinces and to the cities from which embassies on this matter were present. I have set the beginning from the Olympian contests, since this contest is ancient and certainly the most prestigious of the Greek ones. After the Olympian contests shall be the Isthmian contests, and after the Isthmian the Hadrianeian, so that the contest begins on the next day after the festival at Eleusis ends, and this is by Athenian reckoning the first day of Maimakterion. There shall be forty days for the Hadrianeian contests, and the contest in Tarentum shall be held after the Hadrianeian contests in the month of January, with the Capitolian contests, as they have been completed up to now, preceding the contests in Neapolis. Then the Actian contests will take place, beginning nine days before the kalends of October, and ending within forty days. During the passage there shall be the contest in Patrae, then the Heraian and Nemean contests from the kalends of November to the kalends of January. After the Nemean contests shall be the Panathenaian contests, so that the contest is completed on the same day by the Attic calendar as it ended up to now. After the Panathenaian contests the Smyrnaians shall hold theirs, with the contestants having fifteen days from the shield-race of the Panathenaian contests, and with the contest beginning immediately after the fifteen days, and being finished within forty days. After the shield(-race), leaving an interval of two days, the contest of the Pergamenes shall start immediately and be finished within the forty days. The Ephesians shall leave an interval of four days from the shield(-race) in Pergamon (70) and the contest shall be finished on the fortieth day from the beginning (?). Then from there the contestants shall go to the Pythian contests and the Isthmian contests that follow the Pythian ones, and to the joint festival of the Achaians and Arkadians in Mantinea, and then to the Olympian contests. In this year the Panhellenian contests take place. The Smyrnaeans shall begin their local Hadrianean contests from the day before the nones of January and will hold the festival for forty days. The Ephesians, having left an interval of two days from the shield-race in Smyrna, shall begin their local Olympian contests, having fifty-two days for the Olympian contests themselves and the Balbilleian contests that follow them. After the Balbilleian contests come the Panhellenian contests and the Olympian contests following the Panhellenian contests.

(Local contests of various cities)

I advised the Nikomedians to put off the date of their local contest, but they say that they adhere to the customary date, so they may conduct it whenever they themselves wish. The Thessalonians, . . . Perinthians, Laodiceans, Hieropolitans, Philadelphians, Trallians and Thyatirenes, and any others from whom embassies came about this, shall understand (?) that the contests authorized by the most eminent senate must receive precedence in the timing of order, but it must be up to them to conduct . . . . their local contests (?) . . . whenever they occur. As for the Chians, not holding their own contest on the announced date (since they do not have a fixed time) will not affect them adversely with regard to . . . announcing (?) . . . a date for themselves.

(Consequences of this reform)

The contestants will get both to all the contests now set in order by me and — since nobody saw fit to — to the majority concerning them (?), provided, first, (80) that all festivals everywhere are held for forty days (and let this be laid down), and then that they (i.e. the contestants) are not worn down demanding the prize-moneys after the contests. Hence what I laid down elsewhere is necessary, that the money be set out beside the crowns in the theater and in the stadium, and that the victor should receive it immediately in view of the spectators. The director of contests who does not so award it will be liable for a fine equal to twice the prize-money, in such a way that half is taken by the contestant and half by the city in which the contest is set up.


This letter of mine is to be set up on monuments (stelai) by the cities in which the contests that have been set in order are held, and by the synods in their own sanctuaries.


(Letter 3, beginning at line 85)

Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, son of god Trajan Parthicus, grandson of god Nerva, greatest high-priest (pontifex maximus), with tribunician power for the 18th time, consul for the third time, father of his country, to the traveling musical synod of performers (technitai) associated with Dionysos and victorious in sacred and crowned contests, greetings. In accordance with my own custom, I give you the right to a banquet. Introducing expenses into the cities that they did not formerly pay is not my practice; but I confirm the customary banquets, so that it may not be in the power of the directors of the contests to evade this kind of benefaction. Farewell.

Translation by: Christopher P. Jones

(Letter 1) ἀγαθῇ τύχῃ· | Αὐτοκράτωρ Καῖσαρ θεοῦ Τραιανοῦ Παρθικοῦ υἱός, | θεοῦ Νέρβα υἱωνός, Τραιανὸς Ἁδριανὸς Σεβαστός, | ἀρχιερεὺς μέγιστος, δημαρχικῆς ἐξουσίας τὸ ιηʹ, ὕπα||τος τὸ γʹ, πατὴρ πατρίδος, συνόδῳ θυμελικῇ περιπο|λιστικῇ τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνειτῶν ἱερονεικῶν στεφα|νειτῶν vac. χαίρειν· | τοὺς ἀγῶνας πάντας ἄγεσθαι κελεύω καὶ μὴ ἐξεῖναι πόλει πόρους ἀγῶνος κατὰ νόμον ἢ ψήφισ|μα ἢ διαθήκα̣ς ἀγομένου{ς} μετενενκεῖν εἰς ἄλλα δαπανήματα οὐδὲ εἰς ἔργου κατασκευὴν ἐφίημι || χρήσασθαι ἀ̣ργυρίῳ, ἐξ οὗ ἆθλα τίθεται ἀγωνισταῖς ἢ συντάξεις δίδονται τοῖς νε[ι]κήσασιν· εἰ δέ ποτε ἐπείξαι | πόλιν (οὐκ εἰς τρυφὴν καὶ πολυτέλειαν, ἀλλ’ ὡς πυ̣ρὸν ἐν σειτοδείᾳ | παρεσκεύασα πόρον τινὰ ἐξευρεῖν), | τότε μοι γραφέσθω, ἄνευ δε ἐμῆς συνχωρήσεως μηδὲν πρὸς τὸ τοιοῦτό τι ἐξέστω λαμβάνειν τάδε | εἰς τοὺς ἀγῶνας ἀποτεταγμένα χρήματα. ἐκεῖνο μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ἀδικίαν μόνον, ἀλλὰ τρόπον τι||νὰ καὶ ἐνέδραν ἔχει τὸ κατανγείλαντας ἀγῶνα καὶ καλέσαντας τοὺς ἀγωνιστάς, ἔπειτα ἡκόντων ἢ εὐθὺς ἢ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἢ μέρη τινὰ ἀγ̣αγόντας μεταξὺ διαλῦσαι τὴν πανήγυριν. καὶ ἔνθα ἂν γένηται τοῦτο, τὰ μὲν ἆθλα | οἱ ἀγωνισταὶ καὶ ἄνευ τοῦ ἀγωνίσασθαι διανεμέσθωσαν (καὶ οὐχ ὡς δίκαιον κελεύω τοῦτο, ἀλλ’ ὡς τὸ ἄγειν τοὺς ἀγῶνας | καὶ ταύτην ἀνανκαῖον γείνεσθαι)· τὸν δὲ εἰσηγησάμενόν τι τοιοῦτο ἢ̣ ἐπιψηφίσαντα ἢ τὸ ἔργον πράξαντα ἐγὼ | καλέσω δώσοντα εὐθύνας τοῦ παρακοῦσαι τῶν διατεταγμένων καὶ ὑφέξοντα τὴν δικαίαν τειμωρίαν· Μειλησίοις | καὶ Χείοις ἐπέστειλα ἀποδοῦναι ὑμεῖν τοὺς ἀγῶνας, οὓς ἐξέλιπον, τὰ περὶ τὰ ἆθλα καὶ τὰς συντάξεις δικαίως αἰτιᾶσθαι· || καὶ γὰρ αὐτὸς οἶδα τοὺς ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι διοικουμένους τὰ τοιαῦτα, εἰ μή τι καὶ αὐτοὶ λάβοιεν, ἀποστεροῦντας τὰ | ὀφειλόμενα τοῖς ἀθληταῖς. τὰ μὲν δὴ τῶν ἄθλων οὕτω γεινέσθω· τοῖς ἀγῶσι ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν ἀρχή τις ἡμετέρα παρατυγ|χάνει· ὁ δ’ ἀγωνοθέτης ἑκάστου ἀγῶνος τῷ ἡγεμόνι τοῦ ἔθνους ἢ ἀνθυπάτῳ ἢ ταμίᾳ ἢ πρεσβευτῇ ἢ ὅστις ἂν | ὁ παρὼν ᾖ, πρὸ μιᾶς ἡμέ̣[ρας] ἑκάστου ἀγωνίσματος παραρι̣θμείτω τοῦ θέματος τὸ ἀργύριον· ὁ δὲ ἐνβαλὼν εἰς | φασκώλιον καὶ κατ̣[αση]μηνάμενος τιθέτω παρὰ τὸν σ̣τέφανον, ἐάν τε μουσικὸν τὸ ἀγώνισμα ᾖ <ἢ> γυμνικόν, || καὶ ὁ νεικήσας εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τῇ νείκῃ σὺν καὶ τῷ στεφάνῳ πάντων ὁρώντων λαμβανέτω. αἱ δὲ συντάξεις διδόσθ̣ωσαν τοῖς | ἱερονείκα̣ις κατὰ τὰς ὡρισμένας προθεσμίας· ὁ δὲ οὐ δοὺς ἄρχ̣ων ἢ ταμίας καὶ ἡμιόλιον τῷ ἱερονείκῃ προσφε|ρέτω· ἔστω δὲ ἡ σύνταξις ἀργύριον αὐτό· αἵ τε γὰρ πόλεις οὐ πυρὸν οὐδὲ οἶνον ὑπέσχοντο τοῖς ἀγωνισταῖς | καὶ οὐδ’ ἐκείνους πρὸς τῷ ζημιοῦσθαι καπηλεύειν δίκαιον. μαστειγοῦν ἀγωνιστήν, εἰ δεήσαι· κεκληρωμένοι μὲν πρὸς τούτῳ | ἔστωσαν μαστειγοφόροι, προσίτωσαν δὲ κατὰ δύο, ᾗ ἂν τάξει τύχωσιν λαχόντες πρῶτοί τινες καὶ δεύτεροι, κἂν δεήσει, τρίτοι. δεῖ μὲν γὰρ || εἶναί τι ἐπηρτημένον δέος τοῖς ἀγωνισταῖς καὶ σωφρονίζεσθ̣αι τοὺς πλημελοῦντας, ἀλλ’ ὡς μὴ ὑπὸ πολλῶν ὁμοῦ παί|εσθαι καὶ εἰς μόνα τὰ σκέλη καὶ μήτε ἀκρωτηριασθῆναί τινα μήτε ἄλλῃ λύπῃ περιπεσεῖν, ἐξ ἧς καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἄσκησιν αὐ|τὴν χείρων ἔσται. τοὺς Κορινθίων λογισμοὺς τῷ ἀνθυπάτῳ ἔπεμψα γράψας ὡ̣ς τάχιστα ἐξ̣ετάσαι τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ πρὸς δύνα|μιν τῶν δημοσίων πόρων ἀποφήνασθαι, πότερον δύο μέρη προσήκει λαμβάνειν τοὺς ἱερονείκας ἢ τὸ ἥμισυ· μέχρι δὲ οἱ Κο|ρίνθιοι διδάσκουσιν περὶ τῶν λόγων, τὰ δύο μέρη διδότωσαν. τοὺς μουσικοὺς ἑκατοστὰς συντελεῖν, εἰ τὰ τοῖς ξυστάρχαις διδόμενά || τινα ἔχει πιθανὸν λόγον ἤ τι κοινὸν τοῖς μουσικοῖς πρὸς τοὺς ξυστάρχας ἐστίν. πῶς δὲ οὐχὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἀλογίαν ἔσχεν ἄν, εἰ καὶ οἱ τῶν | μουσικῶν ἄρχοντες παρὰ τῶν ἀθλητῶν ἑκατοστὰς λαμβάνειν ἠξίουν; ἀλλ’ οἱ μὲν ἀθληταὶ διδότωσαν τὰς τεταγμένας ἑκατοστάς· | ἔχουσι γάρ τι οἰκεῖον πρὸς τοὺς ξυστάρχας καὶ τοῦ ἐπιτηδεύματος κοινωνοῦντος καὶ ὑπ’ αὐτοῖς ἀγωνιζόμενοι. τὸ δὲ ἐνδέον εἰς τὸ | τοῖς ξυστάρχαις τεινόμενον ἢ τὰς πόλεις, αἳ διατιθέασιν τοὺς ἀγῶνας, προσαναπλ̣<η>ροῦν ἄξιον (καὶ οὐ βαρὺ τὸ ἀνάλωμά ἐστιν διὰ πενταετίας | γεινόμενον) ἢ τοὺς ἀγωνοθέτας τούς τε στεφάνους καὶ τὴν πορφύραν ἔχοντας. ἐπέστειλα δὲ τῷ κοινῷ τῆς Ἀσίας συνεδρίῳ καὶ βουλεύσασθαι || περὶ τούτου καὶ τάξαι πόρους, ἀφ’ ὧν τὸ ἐνδεῆσον ἐκ τοῦ τὰς τῶν μουσικῶν ἑκατοστὰς̣ ὑφειρῆσθαι δοθήσεται τοῖς ξυστάρχαις. περὶ τῶν σαλ|πικτῶν καὶ τῶν κηρύκων· ἔγραψα Ἐφεσίοις, ὡς μὴ ἀνανκάζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων ἐγείρειν ἀνδριάντας, εἰ καὶ τούτοις ἐξ ὧν Νύσιος ἀπέλι|πεν χωρίων ἀνίστασθαι· ἦσαν δέ τινες ἔμπειροι τῶν ἐπιχωρίων, οἱ λέγοντες, ὅτι, ἐὰν ἐπιμέλεια γένηται τῶν κτημάτων ἡ δέουσα καὶ τῶν | λογισμῶν ἀκρε<ι>βὴς ἐξέτασις, περίεστ(ί) τι τῶν χρη<μ>άτων. ἔγραψα καὶ Ποπλίῳ Μαρκέλλῳ, τῷ κρατίστῳ φίλῳ μου καὶ τῆς Συρίας ἡγε|μόνι, προνοῆσαι τοῦ ἐν ’Απαμείᾳ ἀχθέντος ἀγῶνος τὰ θέματα ἀποδοθῆναι τοῖς νενεικηκόσιν, ’Αλ̣εξιανὸν ἀγωνοθετοῦντα ἃ κατα||σχεῖν φατε. ἐπέστειλα καὶ τοῖς τῶν ἐθνῶν συνεδρίοις δηλῶν, ὅτι Ἐφέσιοι τὰ ἐν Βαλβιλλείοις ἀγωνίσματα εἰς δύο ἀγῶνας καταδιένειμαν | καὶ δεῖ τοὺς τὰ Ἁδριάνεια ἐκεῖ νεικῶντας οὕ̣τ̣ως λαμβάνειν τὰς συντάξεις ὡς ἐλάμβανον, ἡνίκα τὰ Βαλβίλλεια ἐνείκων. γέγραπται | <τ>οῦτο καὶ Πετρωνίῳ Μαμερτείνῳ, τῷ φίλῳ μου καὶ ἐπάρχῳ τῆς Αἰγύπτου, ὡς κἀκεῖ τελοῖτο τοῖς νεικῶσι τὰ ’Εφεσίων Ἁδριάνεια ἡ οὖσα | ὑμεῖν ἀλειτουργησία καὶ ἀτέλεια βεβαία ἔστω. τοῖς δὲ ἀποθνῄσκουσιν ἀθληταῖς καὶ μουσικοῖς, οἳ τὸν ὅλον βίον διατελοῦσιν ἀποδη|μοῦντες, φιλάνθρωπόν ἐστιν ἀνεῖσθαι τὰ τέλη τὰ ἐπὶ ταῖς ταφαῖς. αἱ συντάξεις ἐπὶ ταῖς νείκαις οὐκ ἀφ’ ἧς ἂν εἰσελάσῃ τις ἡμέρας ὀφεί||λονται, ἀλλὰ ἀφ’ ἧς ἂν τὰ περὶ τῆς νείκης γράμματα ἀποδοθῇ ταῖς πατρίσιν αὐτῶν· τοῖς δὲ ἐπὶ ἀγῶνας ἄλλους ἐπειγομένοις ἐξέστω | καὶ πέμπειν τὰ γράμματα. οἱ κατὰ τοὺς τῆς συνόδου νόμους συνβάλλοντες, κα[ὶ] ἂν παύσωνται ἀσκοῦντες κἂν Ῥωμαῖοι γένωνται, | ἐκείνοις τοῖς νόμοις ἐνεχέσθωσαν, καθ’ οὓς συμβεβλήκασιν. τοὺς νόμους τοὺς τῶν ἀγώνων καθ’ ἑκάστην πανήγυριν προγεγράφθαι | κελεύω, ὡς μὴ ὑπὸ ἀγνοίας πράττοιτό τι τῶν ἀπειρημένων. ἐν ταῖς ἐνκρίσεσιν πολείτῃ συνηγορεῖν μὴ ἐξέστω, ἐπειδὴ νομίζεται | διὰ τὰς ἐπιχωρίων δυνάμεις ἀδίκους γείνεσθαι τὰς ἐνκρίσεις. τὰ νενομισμένα δικαστήρια περὶ τῶν ζημιῶν ἀποδιδόσθω κατὰ || τοὺς παρ’ ἑκάστοις νόμους. τοῦ δὲ γείνεσθαι ταῦτα πάντα, ὡς ἐγὼ διέταξα, ἐπιμελήσονται παρ’ ἑκάστοις οὗτοι ἔθνους ἡγ̣ού<με>νοι· συνχωρῶ | δὲ ὑμεῖν, ἔνθα ἂν βούλησθε, καὶ στήλλαις ἐνγράψαι αὐτά, ὡς πᾶσιν εἴη γνώριμα. vac. εὐτυχεῖτε.|

(Letter 2, beginning at line 57) Αὐτοκράτωρ Καῖσαρ θεοῦ Τραιανοῦ Παρθικοῦ ὑός, θεοῦ Νέρβα υἱωνός, Τραιανὸς Ἁδριανὸς Σεβαστός, ἀρχιερεὺς μέγιστος, δημαρχικῆς ἐξουσίας | τὸ ιηʹ, ὕπατος τὸ γʹ, πατὴρ πατρίδος, συνόδῳ θυμελικῇ περιπολιστικῇ τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνειτῶν ἱρονεικῶν στεφανει|τῶν vac. χαίρειν· vac. || ὡς ἔδοξέ μοι τετάχθαι τοὺς ἀγῶνας, περὶ ὧν ἐν Νεαπόλει λόγοι καὶ ἀξιώσεις ἐπ’ ἐμοῦ ἐγένοντο, ὑμεῖν τε ἐδήλωσα καὶ πρὸ̣[ς] τ̣[ὰ] ἔθνη καὶ τὰς πόλεις, | ἀφ’ ὧν πρεσβεῖαι περὶ τούτου παρῆσαν, ἐπιστέλλω· τὴν δὲ ἀρχὴν ἀπ’ ’Ολυμπίων ἐποιησάμη̣ν, ὅτι ἐστὶν ἀρχαῖο̣ς ὁ ἀγὼν οὗτος καὶ ἐνδοξότατος τῶν γ̣ε | Ἑλληνικῶν· μετὰ δὲ τὰ Ὀλύμπια Ἴσθμια ἔστω, μετὰ δὲ Ἴσθμια Ἁδριάνεια, ὡς ἄρχεσθαι τὸν ἀγῶνα παυσαμένης τῆς ἐν Ἐλευσεῖνι πανηγύρεως τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ· | ἔστιν δὲ αὕτη κατὰ ’Αθηναίους νουμηνία τοῦ Μαιμακτηριῶνος· τεσσαράκοντα ἡμέραι Ἁδριανείων ἔστωσαν. ὁ δ’ ἐν Τάραντι ἀγὼν μετὰ Ἁδριάνεια ἀγέ|σ<θ>ω τοῦ ’Ιανουαρίου μηνός, ἀπὸ δὲ Καπετωλείων, ὡς μέχρι νῦν ἐπετελέσθη, ἀγομένων ἐν Νεαπόλει ἀγώνων· εἶτα Ἄκτια ἀρχόμενα μὲν τῇ πρὸ θʹ καλ(ανδῶν) || ’Οκτων(βρίων), συντελούμενα δὲ ἐν τεσσαράκοντα ἡμέραις. ἐν παράπλῳ δὲ ὁ ἐν Πάτραις ἀγών, εἶτα Ἡρ̣αῖα καὶ Νέμεια ἀπὸ καλ(ανδῶν) Νοεμβρ(ίων) εἰς καλ(άνδας) ’Ιανουαρίας· | μετὰ δὲ Νέμεια Παναθήναια, ὥστε συντελεῖσθαι τὸν ἀγῶνα ἐπ̣’ αὐτῆς τῆς κατὰ τὸν ’Αττικὸν χρόνον, ἐν ᾗ μέχρι νῦν συνετελέσθη· μετὰ δὲ Παναθή|ν̣αια Ζμυρναῖοι ἀγέτωσαν, ἐς μὲ̣ν πλοῦν τῶν ἀγωνιστῶν ἐχόντων πεντεκαίδεκα ἡμέρας ἀπὸ τοῦ Παναθηναίων ὅπλου, τοῦ δὲ ἀγῶνος ἀρχομένου | μετὰ τὰς πεντεκαίδεκα εὐθύς, συντελουμένου δὲ τετταράκοντα ἡμέραις· ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ ἐν [Ζμ]ύρνῃ ὅπλου δύο ἡμέρα{ι}ς {ἡμέρας} διαλιπὼν ὁ Περγαμηνῶν | ἀγὼν ἀρξάσθω τε εὐθὺς καὶ ταῖς τετταράκοντα ἡμέραις συντελείσθω· ’Εφέσιοι δ̣ὲ ἀπὸ τ̣ο̣ῦ̣ ἐν Περγάμῳ ὅπλου διαλιπέτωσαν ἡμέρας τέσσαρας, ἔστω δὲ || ὁ ἀγὼν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς τῆς τεσσαρακοστῆς συντετελεσμένος. εἶτα ἐκεῖθεν ἐπὶ Πύθια οἱ ἀγωνισταὶ καὶ Ἴσθ<μ>ια, τὰ ἐπὶ Πυθίοις, καὶ τὰ ἐν Μαντινείᾳ Κοινὰ | ’Αχαιῶν καὶ ’Αρκάδων, εἶτα ’Ολύμπεια. ἐν τῷδε ἔτει Πανελλήνια ἐπιτελεῖται· Ζμυρναῖοι μὲν ἄρξονται τῶν παρ’ αὐτοῖς Ἁδριανείων ἀπὸ τῆς πρὸ μιᾶς νω|νῶν ’Ιανουαρίων κα<ὶ> ἐπὶ τεσσαράκοντα ἡμέρας ἄξουσιν τὴν πανήγυρ̣[ι]ν· ’Εφέσιοι δὲ δύο ἡμέρας ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐν Ζμύρνῃ ὅπλου διαλιπόντες ἄρξονται τῶν πα|ρ’ αὐτοῖς ’Ολυμπείων, εἰς τὰ ’Ολύμπια αὐτὰ καὶ τὰ ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς Βαλβίλλ[εια δύ]ο̣ καὶ πεντήκοντα ἡμέρας ἔχοντες, ἐπὶ δὲ Βαλβιλλείοις Πανελλήνια καὶ ’Ολύμπια | ἐπὶ Πανελληνίοις. Νεικομηδεῦσ<ι>ν ἐγὼ συνεβούλευον ὑπο[․ ․ ․ . . c.10-12 ․ ․ ․ . .] τὴν προθεσμίαν τοῦ παρ’ αὐτοῖς ἀγῶνος, οἱ δέ φασιν περιέχεσθαι τοῦ συνήθους και||ροῦ· ἀγέτωσαν δή, ὁπότε̣ α̣ὐτοὶ βούλωνται. Θεσσαλονεικε̣ῖ̣[ς ․․․․․․․] κ̣α̣ὶ Περίνθιοι καὶ Λαυδικεῖς καὶ Ἱεραπολεῖται καὶ Φιλαδελφεῖς καὶ Τραλλιανοὶ καὶ Θυατει|ρηνοί, καὶ εἴ τινων ἄλλων πρεσβεῖα<ι> περὶ τ̣ούτ̣ου [․ ․ . c.7-8․ ․ . ἀφί(?)]κ̣οντο, πριάσθωσαν, ὅτι τοὺς ὑπὸ τῆς λαμπροτάτης συνκλήτου κεκυρωμένους ἀγῶνας | προτειμᾶσθαι δεῖ τῷ καιρῷ τῆς τάξεως, ἐπ’ α̣ὐ̣τ̣οῖς ΔΕΠΙ̣Λ̣Ο̣Ι̣Τ̣Ω̣[․․]ΔΙ v Υ v ἄγε̣ιν, ἡνίκ’ ἂν γείνωνται. Χείους δὲ τὸ μὴ ἄγειν τὸν ἑαυτῶν ἀγῶνα εἰς τὸν κατην|γ̣ε̣λ̣μ̣ένον καιρὸν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχει̣ν̣ β̣ε̣βαίαν προθεσμί̣αν οὐ β̣λάψει π̣ρος τὸ(?) ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ․ ἑαυτοῖς καιρόν. γενήσονται δὲ οἱ ἀγωνισταὶ ἐπὶ πάντας | τούς τ̣ε νῦν ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ τεταγμένους ἀγῶνας Κ․․․․․․․․․․ διὰ τὸ || μηδένα ἀξιῶσαι ΠΛΡ̣ϹΛΙΟΙ περὶ αὐτῶν τοὺς πλείστους, ἐὰν πρῶτον μὲν πᾶσαι πανταχοῦ πανηγύρεις ἐπὶ τεσσαράκοντα ἡμέρας ἄγωνται (καὶ διατετάχθω τοῦτο), εἶτα δὲ μὴ κ̣ατατρείβω̣ντα<ι> μετὰ τοὺς ἀγῶνας τὰ θέματα ΛΠ̣Λ|ΤΟΥΝΤΟΥΣ. ἐντεῦθεν ἀνανκαῖόν ἐστιν τὸ καὶ ἀλαχ̣οῦ μοι διατεταγμένον, ἔνδον ἐν τῷ θεάτρῳ καὶ τῷ σταδίῷ προτίθεσθαι τὸ ἀργύριον παρὰ τοῖς στεφά|νοις κα<ὶ> τὸν νεικῶντα λαμβάνειν εὐθὺς ἐν ὄψει τῶν θεωμένων· ὁ δὲ οὐχ οὕτως ἀποδοὺς ἀγωνοθέτης διπλασείῳ ἐνέξεται τῷ θέματι, ὡς τὸ μὲν ἥμι|συ τὸν ἀγωνιστὴν λαβεῖν, τὸ δὲ ἥμισυ τὴν πόλιν, ἔνθα ὁ ἀγὼν ἐπιτελεῖται. ταῦτά μου τὰ γράμματα ἐν στήλλαις ἀναγραψάτωσαν αἱ πόλεις, παρ’ αἷς | οἱ ἀγῶνες οἱ διατεταγμένοι ἄγονται, αἱ δὲ σύνοδοι ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς τοῖς ἑαυτῶν· || vac. εὐτυχεῖτε. |

(Letter 3, beginning at line 85) Αὐτοκράτωρ Καῖσαρ θεοῦ Τραιαν[ο]ῦ Παρθικοῦ ὑός, θεοῦ Νέρουα υἱωνός, Τραιανὸς Ἁδριανὸς Σεβαστός, ἀρχιερεὺς μέγιστος, δημαρχικῆς ἐξουσίας τὸ ιηʹ, | ὕπατος τὸ γʹ, πατὴρ πατρίδο[ς], συνόδῳ θυμελικῇ τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνειτῶν χαίρειν· ἐγὼ μὲν τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ ἔθος φυλάσσων δίδωμι | ὑμεῖν τὴν ἀνάπτωσιν, ἐπεισάγειν δὲ ταῖς πόλεσιν ἀναλώματα, ἃ μὴ πρότερον ἐτέλεσαν, οὐκ εἴθισμαι· τὰς μέντοι νενομισμένας ἀναπτώ|σεις κυρῶ, ὡς μὴ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀγωνοθέταις εἶναι, διαναδύεσθαι τὴν τοιαύτην φιλοτειμίαν. | εὐτυχεῖτε.

Item added: November 29, 2012
Item modified: September 22, 2020
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