Associations in the Greco-Roman World (AGRW)

An expanding collection of inscriptions, papyri, and other sources in translation (run by Philip A. Harland)

Foundation of a Familial Society by Diomedon (310-290 BCE) Kos - Southeastern islands

Kos (Southeastern islands, Aegean Islands — Pleiades map), 310-290 BCE
IG XII,4.1 348 = IKosPH 36 = IKosS ED 149 = PHI 349918 = CGRN 96 (with French translation and English commentary) = AGRW ID# 25100
Copenhagen Inventory info: 1919


Rectangular pillar (65 cm tall) with three different documents inscribed by different hands on all four sides of the pillar. Found in a suburb of Kos. The first and earliest of the documents (dating around 310 BCE - side A and part of side B) pertains to a dedication of the sanctuary and accompanying regulations. The second (dating about a decade later, around 300 BCE - the latter part of side B) adds further regulations. The third (dating to the first decade of the third century) contains further regulations pertaining to a variety of family and sanctuary matters.

Translation by Carbon (with some terminological modifications by Harland) used under a Creative Commons licence from J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, "A Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN)", Liège 2016- (, consulted in 2018).

(Document 1, side A and part of side B)

Diomedon has consecrated (?). . . this precinct to Diomedontian Herakles, and he has also dedicated the guest-chambers, those in the garden, and the small buildings.  Let Libys and his descendants (5) be free, if they do what has been prescribed.  Those who share in the cult should take care that they will continue to be free and that no one does them injustice.  The children of (10) Diomedon and their descendants should always perform the sacrifices. Libys and the children of Libys should have the garden for hire . . . (erasure). . . as much as seems good.   They should pay. . . the rent (?) . . . on the. . . xth . . . of the month of Theudaisios (15) so that the money is available for the sacrifice on the 16th and . . . 17th (?). . . of Petageitnyos.  They should provide bed-cushions . . . for Herakles and . . . on the first days (20) they should also wash the portraits of the . . . ancestors of (?) . . . Diomedon and they should crown . . . each of them (?) . . . when there is a festival.  Now . . . Herakles . . . always the eldest (25) . . . of the descendants of Diomedon (?).  Let him sacrifice: . . .to Herakles and Diomedon (?) . . . a calf or . . . ; to Dionysos a goat or . . . a kid (?); to Hera a kid (?) . . . or a goat; to . . . all the other gods for whom there (?) . . . are altars in (30) . . . the building (?) . . .; to Aphrodite . . . a goat or a piglet; to . . . there is to be . . . a libation (?) for Herakles (35); . . . and, for all the other goddesses and (?) . . . Diomedon.   . . . Let him provide (?) offerings, . . .bread for (?) . . . the bread-meal . . . and wine and honey for the (?) . . . libation . . ., (side B) (two missing lines ) . . . and firewood for the sacrifice. (40) Let him receive as perquisites from each sacrificial animal, a leg and the skin.  A sacrifice of fish is also to be made, according to the ancestral customs.  It shall not be permitted to anyone to (45) appropriate for themselves the buildings at the precinct or the precinct itself, or to sell them or to mortgage them.  If some aspect of the buildings or the precinct is in need of maintenance, (50) they should make each reparation from the income.  If one of the cult members has a child, he should give as an entrance payment: a piglet, offerings, frankincense, a libation, (55) a crown.

(Document 2, side B)

The statues and the votive offerings should be in the building in the place where they are now.  A sacrifice is to be made on the 16th of (60) the month Petageitnyos and a guest-meal is to be held for Herakles, and the sacrifice of fish on the 17th.  Each year three ‘monthly officials’ (epimenioi; these sacrificial officials do not actually serve on a monthly basis) are to be selected (65), who will fulfill the sacrifices together with the priest.  The ‘monthly officials’ should take care of all that is necessary for the reception.

(Document 3, side B and side C)

If the (70) precinct or the garden or the guestrooms or the . . . small building (?) . . . or the building is in need of repair (side C) . . . or anything else needs (?) . . .  maintenance, . . . money from the income . . . that (75) continuously accrues (?) . . . from the precinct . . . and the garden (?) . . . and the guest-rooms as much as . . . seems (?) . . . enough. The rest of the money and the sum that is set apart should be divided into parts, and use for each sacrifice (80) the corresponding share. And let it not be allowed to those who take part in the cult to cultivate the land in the precinct or to live in the guest-rooms or the house in the precinct nor to use (85) the meeting-place, the one in the temple, as a storeroom, or the covered walk, except when there is a war. If one of the descendants in the male line seems to the members of the cult to be lacking in . . .  private means, when (?) . . . he is about to celebrate . . . his marriage (?), let him organise the marriage in the month of (90) Petageitnyos, the banquet on the 16th, the distribution on the 17th, so that the sacrifice for Herakles is accomplished according to the ancestral customs, on the 18th, the assembly, and on the remaining days (95) the marriage is to be celebrated. The prepared couch and the statues for Heracles should remain . . . in place (?), until the marriage is celebrated.  Take from the sacrificial animals . . . what (?) . . . seems good for the table . . . for the (100) god (?). . ., and the one who is getting married should use all the remaining meat, for the guest-meal of his relatives. Let the priest . . . give up (?) . . . his perquisites for the marriages to the person who is getting married, taking 8 drachmae from the income, and those who possess houses should furnish (105) the men’s house and the women’s house for the marriages, after having set aside rooms for the storage of their furniture, and the person who owns the men’s house should also provide the house every day, both for the sacrifice (110) and for the entertainment of Herakles.  . . . The ‘monthly officials’ should take care (?) . . . of these things . . . so that the marriages will be concluded with all good order and so that (?) . . . (several missing lines; side D) you will provide all the necessary things (115) for the children. May things go well for them and for their descendants, who take care that everything is accomplished as it is prescribed, as far as possible . . . for them (?).  (120) I have also consecrated two lamps and two bronze lamps with seven flames, and a square brazier and a mixing vessel and a carpet and a table and (125) five small golden wreaths for the statues and two staffs and three gilded vessels for fumigation and a couch, so that all these be consecrated to Herakles, and a base for the couch (130) and a bronze circular platter.  If someone dares to dissolve any of what has been ordained by Diomedon, doing injustice to the cult and the ancestors on behalf of which (135) an inscription has been made on the altar and on the stele, the children of Diomedon . . . (erasure) . . . and their descendants should not allow it but come to the rescue (140) of the cult and the ancestors. The ‘monthly officials’ are to assemble them and on the next day invite those who seem good to them.  (145) The children of Diomedon and their descendants should choose ‘monthly officials.’  If anyone, being an illegitimate child, having been examined, is judged to have the right to take part in the cult, let it not be allowed to him to take part in the priestly offices.  You should take from the income (150) 50 drachmae for the sacrifice to (Zeus) Pasios, and for the sacrifice to the Fates (Moirai), 40 drachmae.  The descendants in the male line should sacrifice to (Zeus) Pasios and the Fates.  (155) I have consecrated also four glass libation bowls (phialai) and a . . .  purple (?) . . . mantle.  During the . . . festival of Herakles (?). . ., give portions to the participants in the procession.

Translation by: Jan-Mathieu Carbon (modified)

{side A} Δ̣[ιομέδων ἀνέθηκ]ε τὸ τ̣έμ̣ε̣νος [τόδε] | Ἡρα̣κλεῖ Δ̣[ιομε]δ̣οντείωι, ἀνέθηκε δ[ὲ] | καὶ τοὺς ξενῶνας τοὺς ἐν τῶι κάπωι | καὶ τὰ οἰκημάτια καὶ <Λίβυν> καὶ τὰ ἔγγο||να αὐτοῦ· ἐόντω δὲ ἐλεύθερο̣[ι] ποιοῦντε|ς τὰ συντεταγμένα· ἐπιμελέσθων δ̣ὲ α|ὐτῶν το̣ὶ̣ τῶν ἱερῶν κοινωνεῦντες ὅπως̣ | ἐλεύθεροι ὄντες διατελέωντι καὶ μηθε̣[ὶ]|ς̣ αὐτοὺς ἀδικῆι· θυόντω δὲ τὰ ἱερὰ τοὶ ἐγ̣ [Δι]||[ο]μέδον〚δον〛τος {Διομέδοντος} καὶ ἀεὶ τοὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν̣ γε|ν[ό]μενοι· ἐχέτω δὲ <Λίβυς καὶ τοὶ ἐγ Λίβυο>|ς̣ μ̣ι̣σθοῦ τὸν κᾶπον 〚Μ̣ erasure 〛 | 〚 erasure 〛 ὅσου κα δοκῆι [κα]λ̣ῶς ἔ|[χειν, τὸ δὲ μίσθωμ]α̣ ἀποδιδόντω Θευδα̣||[ισίου — — — αι, ὥστ]ε ὑπάρχειν ἐς τὰν θυ|[σίαν Πεταγειτ]ν̣ύο̣υ ἑκκαιδεκάται κ̣[αὶ] | [ἑπτακαιδεκάται· σ]τρώματα δὲ παρε|[χόντω — — — τῶι] Ἡρακλεῖ καὶ τᾶι | [— — — ἐν τα]ῖ̣ς̣ νευμηνίαις· || [καθαιρόντω δὲ καὶ τὰς] ε̣ἰκόνας τὰς τ|[ῶν προγόνων τῶν Διομέ]δοντος καὶ στ[ε]|[φανούντω ἑκάσταν αὐ]τ̣[ᾶ]ν ἐπεί κα πανά[γ]|[υρις ἦι· ἱεράσθω δὲ τοῦ] Ἡρακλεῦς νῦν | [μὲν — — —, τὸ δὲ λοιπ]ὸ̣ν̣ ἀεὶ ὁ πρεσ<β>ύτ||[ατος τῶν Διομέδοντος ἐγγό]ν̣ω̣ν· θυόντω δὲ [τῶι Ἡρακλεῖ καὶ Διομέδ]ο̣[ν]τι μόσχον [ἢ] | [— — — τῶι δὲ Διον]ύσωι αἶγα ἢ | [ἔριφον, τᾶι δὲ Ἥραι ἔριφ]ον ἢ αἶγα, τοῖς | [δὲ ἄλλοις θεοῖς πᾶσι, ὧν] τ̣ο̣ὶ βωμοὶ ἐν τ||[ᾶι οἰκίαι — — —], τᾶι δὲ Ἀφροδί[τ]|[αι — — —]ΝΓ[․]Ο̣ΤΛΤΕΣ[․] | [— — — αἶγ]α ἢ χοῖρον, τῶι | [δὲ — — —· σπονδὰ]ν δ’ ἦμεν | [— — — τ]ῶι Ἡρακλ||[εῖ — — —]ν δὲ ταῖς ἄ[λ]|[λαις θεαῖς πάσαις καὶ Διομέ]δ̣οντι· ἱερ[ὰ] | [δὲ παρεχέτω ἄρτον ποτὶ τ]ὰν ἀρ̣τ̣οφαγ[ί]|[αν καὶ οἶνον καὶ μέλι ποτὶ τὰ]ν̣ σ̣πονδὰ̣[ν] vac. 0,065 {side B, right, starting at line 39} vac. 0,02 [κ]αὶ ξύλα ποτὶ τὰν θυσίαν· γ̣[έ]||ρη δὲ λαμβανέτω τοῦ ἱερέο̣[υ] | ἑκάστου σκέλος καὶ τὸ δέρμα· | ποιεῖν δὲ καὶ τὰν ἀποπυρίδα | κ̣ατὰ τὰ πάτρια· μὴ ἐξῆμεν [δὲ] | μηθενὶ τὰ οἰκήματα τὰ ποτ̣[ὶ] || τῶι τεμένει μηδὲ τὸ τέμε[ν]|ος ἐξ〚ε〛ιδιάζεσθαι {ἐξιδιάζεσθαι} μηδὲ πωλ[ε]|[ῖ]ν μηδὲ ὑποτιθέμεν· αἰ δέ κά τ̣[ι] | δ̣έηι τῶν οἰκημάτων ἢ τοῦ [τ]|εμένευς θεραπείας, ἐπισκ[ε]||υαζόντων ἐκ τᾶς ποθόδου̣ <ἕκαστα>· εἰσαγώγιον δὲ διδό|τω ὧι κα γένηται παιδίον, οἷ[ς] | μέτεστι τῶν 〚των〛 ἱερῶν, χο[ῖ]|ρ̣ον, ἱερά, λιβανωτόν, σπονδ||άν, στέφανον. vac. τὰ δὲ ἀγάλματα καὶ τὰ ἀνα|θήματα ἔστω ἐν τᾶι οἰκία[ι] | κ̣ατὰ χώραν ὥσπερ καὶ νῦν̣ | ἔχει· θύεν δὲ ἑκκαιδεκάται || μηνὸς Πεταγειτνύου κα[ὶ] | τὸν ξενισμὸν ποιεῖν τῶ[ι] | Ἡρακλεῖ, τὰν δ’ ἀποπυρίδα | ἑπτακαιδεκάται· ἐπιμηνί|ους δ’ αἱρεῖσθαι τρεῖς κατ’ ἐ||νιαυτόν, οἵτινες ἐχθυσεῦν̣ | ται τὰ ἱερὰ μετὰ τοῦ ἱερέως· ἐπι|μελέσθων δὲ τοὶ ἐπιμήνιοι | ὧγ κα δέηι ποτὶ τὰν δέξ[ιν]. | ἃν δέ τι δέηι ἐπισκευ[ῆς] || [ἢ τὸ] τέμενος ἢ ὁ κῆπ[ος] | [ἢ οἱ ξ]ενῶνες ἢ τὸ [οἰκη]|[μάτιο]ν ἢ <ἡ> οἰκία ἢ [καὶ] vac. 0,035 {side C, back, starting at line 73} [ἄλλο τι δέηι θ]ε̣ραπε[ίας, — — —] | [․․]ς ἀρ̣γ̣ύριον ἀπὸ τῶν προσόδ̣ων [τῶν ἀεὶ] || [πιπτο]υ̣σ̣ῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ τεμένευ̣ς̣ [καὶ τοῦ] | [κήπου] καὶ τῶν ξενώνων, ὅσο̣ν̣ [ἂν φαίνη]|[ται ἱ]κανὸν εἶναι· τὸ δὲ κατάλοι[πον] | [ἀργ]ύριον καὶ τὰ ἐξαιρήματα δια[ιρεῖν] | [κα]τ̣ὰ μέρη, εἰς ἑκάστην δὲ θυσί[αν τῶι] || ἐπιβάλλοντι μέρει χ̣ρᾶσθαι· μὴ ἐξέσ̣|στω δὲ τοῖς κοινωνοῦσι τῶν ἱερῶγ [γε]|ωργεῖν τὰ τεμένη μηδ’ ἐν τοῖς ξε̣[νῶσι] | ἐνοικεῖν μηδ’ ἐν τῆι οἰκίαι τῆι ἐπὶ τ̣[οῦ τε]|μένευς μηδὲ ἀποθήκηι χρᾶσθαι τῆ̣[ι λέσ]|χ̣ηι τῆι ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι μηδὲ {ν} τῶι περιπάτω[ι] | ἂμ μὴ πόλεμος ἦι· ἂν δέ τι[ς] τ̣ῶν [κα]τ’ ἀν̣|δρογένειαν δόξηι τοῖς κο[ιν]ω̣νο̣[ῦσι τῶν] | ἱερῶν ἐνδειὴς εἶναι τοῖς̣ [ἰ]δί[οι]ς, ἐ̣[πὰν γάμος] | συντελῆται, ποείτω τὸγ [γά]μ̣ον [μηνὸς] || [Π]εταγειτνύου, ἑκκαιδεκάτηι μὲ[ν συν]|αιγλίαν, ἑπτακαιδεκάτηι δὲ διαν̣[ομήν], | ἵνα ἡ θυσία τῶι Ἡρακλεῖ συντελ[ῆται κα]|τὰ τὰ πάτρια, ὀκτωκαιδεκάτηι δ[ὲ ἡ συνα]|γωγή, καὶ ἐν ταῖς λοιπαῖς ἡμέρ[αις συντε]||λ̣είσθω ὁ γάμος· ἡ δὲ στρωμ̣ν[ὴ καὶ τὰ] | [ἀ]γάλματα τῶι Ἡρακλεῖ ἔστω [κατὰ χώ]|[ρ]α̣ν ὑπάρχοντα, ἔστ’ ἂν ὁ γάμ̣[ος συντε]|[λε]σθῆι· ἀφαιρεῖν δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἱερε[ίων, ἃ ἂν] | [δοκ]ῆι καλῶς ἔχειν ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζ[αν τῶι] || [θεῶ]ι, τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς πᾶσι, ὅσα ἐς ξ̣ε̣[νισμὸν] | [οἰκ]ε̣ίων, χράσθω ὁ τὸν γάμον ποιῶν· ἐ̣[φιέτω] | [δὲ] καὶ ὁ ἱερεὺς εἰς τοὺς γάμους τὰ γέρ̣[η τῶι] | [τὸ]ν γάμον ποιοῦντι λαβὼν ὀκτὼ δραχ[μὰς] | [ἐ]κ τῆς προσόδου, καὶ οἱ τὰς οἰκίας ἐκτ[η]||μένοι τήν τε ἀνδρείαν καὶ τὴν γυναικ[εί]|αν παρεχόντω εἰς τοὺς γάμους τὰς οἰκ[ί]|ας παρεξελόμενοι οἰκήματα εἰς ἀπόθε|σ̣ιν τῶν σκευῶν, ὁ δὲ τὴν ἀνδρείαν ἔχων | [π]α̣ρεχέτω τὴν οἰκίαν καὶ εἰς τὴν θυσί||[αν κα]ὶ τὸν ξενισμὸν τοῦ Ἡρακλ[εῦς πά]|[σας ἡμ]έρας· τούτων δὲ [ἐπιμελέσθων οἱ] | [ἐπιμήνιοι ὅπως οἵ τε γάμοι μετὰ πάσης] | [εὐκοσμίας συντελεσθήσονται καὶ ὅπως] | [  vac. ?  ]  
{face D, left, III, beginning at line 114}
[το]ῖς τέκνοις πάντ̣α τὰ δέον||[τ]α̣ παρασκευᾶτε· τοῖς δὲ ἐπι|[μ]ε̣λομένοις ὅπως ἕκαστα συ̣[ν]|[τε]λῆται καθὰ διαγέγραπται | [εἰ]ς δύναμιν εἶναι εὖ εἴη καὶ αὐ|[τ]οῖς καὶ τοῖς ἐγγόνοις αὐτῶν· || ἀνέθηκα δὲ καὶ λυχνίας δύο κα[ὶ] | λύχνους χαλκοῦς ἑπταπύ|ρους δύο καὶ ἐσχάραν τετράγω|[ν]ον καὶ κρατῆρα καὶ τάπητα | καὶ τράπεζαν καὶ στεφανίσκους̣ || πέντε τοῖς ἀγάλμασιν χρυσοῦς | κ̣αὶ ῥ̣όπαλα δύο καὶ θυμιατήρια̣ | τρία κατάχρυσα καὶ κλίνην, ὥσ|τε πάντα ταῦτα ἱερὰ εἶναι τοῦ | Ἡρακλεῦς, καὶ βάθρον τῆς κλί||νης καὶ κύκλον χαλκοῦν· εἰ ἂ[ν] | δέ τις τολμήσηι καταλύειν τ[ι] | [τ]ῶν ὑπὸ Διομέδοντος συν | [τ]ε̣ταγμένων ἀδικῶν τὰ ἱερὰ | [κα]ὶ τοὺς προγόνους ὑπὲρ ὧ[ν] || [γέ]γραπται ἐν τῶι βωμῶι καὶ ἐ[ν] | [τ]ῆ̣ι στήληι, μὴ ἐπιτρέπειν τοὺ[ς] | [ἐ]γ Διομέδοντος 〚Ι[— — — —]Ω․〛| [γ]εγενημένους καὶ τοὺς ἐγγ[ό]|[ν]ους αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ βοηθεῖν || [τ]οῖς ἱεροῖς καὶ τοῖς προγόνοι[ς]· | [συ]νάγειν δὲ τοὺς ἐπιμηνί|[ου]ς καὶ εἰς τὴν αὔριον παρα|[λ]αμβάνοντας οὓς ἂν αὐ|[τ]οῖς δοκῆι· ἐπιμηνίους δὲ αἱρεῖσθ[αι] || [τ]οὺς ἐγ Διομέδοντος καὶ τοὺς ἐγγ[ό]|[ν]ους αὐτῶν· ἂν δέ τις νόθος ὢν κρ[ι]|[θ]εὶς γνωσθῆι μετέχειν τῶν ἱερῶ[ν], | μ̣ὴ ἐξέστω αὐτῶι μετέχειν τῶν | [ἱ]ερωσυνῶν· λαμβάνετε δὲ ἀπ[ὸ] || τῆς προσόδου ὥστε τῶι Πασίω[ι] | ε̣ἰς θυσίαν δραχμὰς πεντήκο[ν]|τα, ταῖς δὲ Μοίραις τεσσαράκο[ν]|τα· θυόντω δὲ τῶι Πασίωι κα̣[ὶ] | ταῖς Μοίραις οἱ κατ’ ἀνδρογένε[ι]||[α]ν· ἀνέθηκα δὲ καὶ ὑαλίνας | [φιά]λας τέσσαρας καὶ χλανίδ[α] | [ἁλο]υργάν· διδόναι δὲ τοῖς Ἡ|[ρακλ]έοις μερίδας τοῖς συ[μ]|[πομπε]ύ̣ουσι. vac. | vac. 0,045

Item added: December 7, 2018
Item modified: February 5, 2020
ID number: 25100
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