Associations in the Greco-Roman World (AGRW)

An expanding collection of inscriptions, papyri, and other sources in translation (run by Philip A. Harland)

Dedication of a Parthenon to Mother Oreia by Mountain Guards (120-210 CE) Apollonia Salbake area - Caria

Apollonia Salbake area (Caria, Asia Minor — Pleiades map), 120-210 CE
ICariaR 162 = Théodore Reinach, "Parthenon (en grec)," BCH 32 (1908) 499–513. = Robert 1937, 106-108 = PHI 257860 = AGRW ID# 10708


Block of marble with a dedication found on the Tabai plain near Apollonia Salbake. This group of guards dedicated a temple (Parthenon) to Mother Oreia; for other associations devoted to the Mother of the Mountain, see TAM V 179 and CCCA I 754. For other examples of a temple designated a Parthenon, see Reinach 1908. This association of young men took on the role of mountain or boundary guards, forming the equivalent of an occupational guild. The mention of a wine-server and musician point to festive activities of the guild as well. One of the group's principal roles was likely to protect the city and surrounding areas against brigands or other intruders. A memorial from Thymbrion in Phrygia was set up for a guard who had been killed by brigands (ὁροφύλακι ἰσφαγέντι ὑπο λῃστῶν; ISultanDaği 230). For other examples of mountain or boundary guards (ὀροφύλακες / ὁροφύλακες), see MAMA VIII 354 (from Neapolis); IPhrygR 104, 116 (from Pisidia).

Stephanion son of Stephanos, the guard (paraphylax), dedicated this to the goddess who listens to prayer, Mountain Oreia Mother of the gods, and to the homeland.  Together with the youths (neaniskoi), he constructed and set up the new Parthenon, building it, providing the wood, providing the roof tiles, furnishing it, and painting it.  Those who served as mountain–guards (hoi orophylakēsantes) were: Papias son of Eutychos, head of the youths (neaniskarchēs), Menandros of Mokolda, Papias son of Neikias, Papias son of Pylades, Damas son of Nedymos, Dionysios son of Papias, Stephanos son of Artemas, Posidonios son of (10) Attalos, Chaireas son of Hipparchos, Kapiton son of Chares, (and) Apollonios of Orsolla.  The horse–groomers (hippokomoi) were Artemidoros, Syros, Diogenes, Artemas, Menandros, and Hermias (?).  Karas was server (diakōn) of the wine.  Marcia daughter of Leonas was singer (mousikē)… Itharos son of Diogas from Herakleia was the mason (leukourgos).  This was dedicated to all the gods.

Translation by: Harland

<Σ>τεφανίων Στεφάνου παραφύλαξ ǀ Μητρὶ Θεῶν Ὀρείᾳ ἐπηκόῳ θεᾷ ǀ καὶ τῇ πατρίδι μετὰ τῶν νεαǀνίσκων κατεσκεύασεν τὸν νέο[ν] ǀǀ παρθενῶνα οἰκοδομήσανǀτες καὶ ξυλώσαντες καὶ κεǀραμώσαντες καὶ χρείσαντες ǀ καὶ ζωγραφήσαντες ἀνέθηκαν· ǀ οἱ δὲ ὀροφυλακήσαντες ἦǀǀσαν Παπίας Εὐτύχου νεανισǀκάρχης, Μένανδρος Μοκολδεύ[ς,] ǀ Παπίας Νεικίου, Παπίας Πυλάδου, ǀ Δαμᾶς Νηδύμου, Διονύσιος Παπίο[υ,] ǀ Στέφανος Ἀρτεμᾶ, Ποσιδώνιος ǀǀ Ἀττάλου, Χαιρέας Ἱππάρχου, ǀ Καπίτων Χάρητος, Ἀπολλώνιος ǀ Ορσωλλεύς· Ἀρτεμίδωρος, ǀ Σύρος, Διογένης, Ἀρτεμᾶ[ς,] ǀ Μένανδρος, Ἑρ[μία]ς? ἱ̣π̣ποκόμοι̣· ǀǀ Καρᾶς διάκων εἰς κάδον· ǀ Μαρκία Λεωνᾶ μουσική· [․․]Λ̣ ǀ [Ἴ]θαρος Διογᾶ Ἡρακλεώτης ǀ λευκουργ[ό]ς· ǀ vac. πᾶσ[ι] ǀǀ vac. [θ]εοῖς.

Item added: February 10, 2013
Item modified: December 10, 2015
ID number: 10708
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