Associations in the Greco-Roman World (AGRW)

An expanding collection of inscriptions, papyri, and other sources in translation (run by Philip A. Harland)

Oath of Loyalty to Augustus by Paphlagonians and Roman Businessmen (3 BCE) Neapolis - Galatia


Neapolis (Galatia, Asia Minor), 3 BCE
IGR III 137 = Franz Cumont, "Inscription grecque de Vézir-Keupru dans l’ancienne Paphlagonie (Asie Mineure),” Comptes-rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 44 (1900) 687–691 = OGIS 532 = PHI 265936  = ID# 13519


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Slab of sandstone. The reference to the third year pertains to the third year after this part of Paphlagonia was incorporated within the Roman province of Galatia (in 6/5 BCE).

In the time of emperor Caesar Augustus, son of a god, during the twelfth consulship, in the third year, on the day before the Nones of March, in Gangris in . . . oath that was completed by the inhabitants of Paphlagonia and the . . . Romans . . .  engaged in business (pragmateuomenoi) alongside them.  By Zeus, Ge (Earth), Helios (Sun), all the gods and goddesses, Augustus himself, and all his children and descendents, I swear with word, deed, and thought to regard as friends any of those they may regard as friends and . . . to consider (?) . . . as enemies any they may judge to be enemies for my whole life.  I will spare neither my body, nor my soul, nor my life, nor my children for their interests, but in every way will endure any danger for the things that involve them.  Whatever I may notice or hear being spoken, planned, or done against them, I will report it and be an enemy to the one saying, planning or doing any such thing.  I will pursue and defend against anyone they may judge to be enemies on land and sea using weapons and arms.  But if I do anything contrary to this. . .  oath (?). . . or anything not conforming to what I swore,  I invoke curses of total and complete destruction against myself, my body, my soul, my life, my children, my entire family, and my interests till the end of all my successors and my descendents, and may . . . the bodies (?) . . . of my family and my descendents not be received by earth or sea, and (the earth) not bear fruit . . .  for them (?). . .  In the same way, everybody . . . in the land . . . swore in the Augustan temples in each . . . district (?). . .  by the altars . . . of Augustus (?). . .   Likewise, the Phazimoneitians who inhabit what is now called . . . Neapolis (?) swore together in the temple of Augustus by . . . the altar (?).

Translation by: Harland



ἀπὸ Αὐτοκράτορος Καίσ[αρος] | θεοῦ υἱοῦ Σεβαστοῦ ὑπατεύ[σαντος τὸ] | δωδέκατον ἔτους τρίτου, π[ροτέραι] | νωνῶν Μαρτίων ἐν Γάνγροις ἐν [κ]ά[στροις(?), ὅρ]||κος ὁ τελεσθ[εὶς ὑ]πὸ τῶ[ν] κατοικ[ούντων Πα]|φλαγονία[ν καὶ τῶν πραγ]ματευομ[ένων πα]|ρ’ αὐτοῖς Ῥ[ωμαίων]. | ὀμνύω Δία Γῆν Ἥλιον θεοὺς πάντα[ς καὶ πά]|σας καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν Σεβασ[τ]ὸν εὐνοή[σειν Καί]||σαρι Σεβαστῶι καὶ τοῖς τ[έκ]νοις ἐγγό[νοις τε] | αὐτοῦ πάν[τ]α τ[ὸ]ν τοῦ [βίου] χρόνον κ[αὶ λό]|γωι [κ]αὶ ἔργωι καὶ γνώμη[ι, φί]λους ἡγού[μενος] | οὓς ἂν ἐκεῖνοι ἡγῶντα[ι] ἐκχθρούς {ἐχθρούς} τε ν[ομίζων] | οὓς ἂν αὐτοὶ κρίνωσιν· ὑπέρ τε τῶν τ[ούτοις] || διαφερόντων μήτε σώματος φείσεσ[θαι μή]|τε ψυχῆς μήτε βίου μήτε τέκνων, ἀλ[λὰ παν]|τὶ τρόπωι ὑπὲρ τῶ[ν] ἐκείνοις ἀνηκό[ντων] | πάντα κίνδυνον ὑπομενεῖν· ὅ τί τε ἂ[ν αἴσ]|θωμαι ἢ ἀκούσω ὑπεναντίον τούτ[οις λε]||γόμενον ἢ βουλευόμενον ἢ πρασσό[μενον], | τοῦτο ἐγμηνύσειν τε καὶ ἐχθρὸν ἔσ[εσθαι τῶι] | λέγοντι ἢ βουλευομένωι ἢ πράσσο[ντί τι τού]|των· οὕς τε ἂν ἐκχθροὺς {ἐχθροὺς} αὐτοὶ κρίν[ωσιν, τού]|τους κατὰ γῆν καὶ θάλασσαν ὅπλο[ις τε] || καὶ σιδήρωι διώξειν καὶ ἀμυνεῖσ[θαι]. | ἐὰν δέ τι ὑπεναντίον τούτωι τ[ῶι ὅρκωι] | ποήσω ἢ μὴ στοιχούντως καθὼ[ς ὤμο]|σα, ἐπαρῶμαι αὐτός τε κατ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ σ[ώμα]|τος τοῦ ἐμαυτοῦ καὶ ψυχῆς καὶ βίου κα[ὶ τέ]||κνων καὶ παντὸς τοῦ ἐμαυτοῦ γέν[ους] | καὶ συνφέροντος ἐξώλειαν καὶ παν[ώλει]|αν μέχρι πάσης διαδοχῆς τῆς ἐ[μῆς καὶ] | τῶν ἐξ ἐμοῦ πάντων, καὶ μήτε σ[ώματα τὰ] | τῶν ἐμῶν ἢ ἐξ ἐμοῦ μήτε γῆ μ[ήτε θάλασ]||σα δέξαιτο μηδὲ καρποὺς ἐνέγ[κοι αὐτοῖς]. | κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ὤμοσαν καὶ οἱ ἐ[ν τῆι χώραι] | πάντες ἐν τοῖς κατὰ τὰς ὑ[παρχίας(?) Σε]|βαστήοις παρὰ τοῖς βωμοῖ[ς τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ]. | ὁμοίως τε Φαζιμωνεῖται οἱ [τὴν νῦν Νεάπο]||λιν λεγομένην κατοικοῦν[τες ὤμοσαν σύμ]|παντες ἐν Σεβαστήωι παρὰ τ[ῶι βωμῶι τοῦ] | Σεβαστοῦ.

Item added: June 17, 2013
Item modified: February 4, 2016
ID number: 13519
Short link address:
http://www.philipharland.com/greco-roman-associations/?p=13519

3 Comments

  • Joseph Akins says:
    February 4, 2016 / Reply

    Very interesting, but how is it dated to 3 BCE?

    • Phil Harland says:
      March 1, 2016 / Reply

      I’ve added clarification, Joseph.

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