Associations in the Greco-Roman World (AGRW)

An expanding collection of inscriptions, papyri, and other sources in translation

Foundation of Symmasis Involving Coppersmiths (150-100 BCE) Tlos or (less likely) Xanthos - Lycia

Tlos or (less likely) Xanthos (Lycia, Asia Minor — Pleiades map)
GRA 149 = Orhan Köse and Recai Tekoğlu, "Money Lending in Hellenistic Lycia: The Union of Copper Money," Adalya 10 (2007) 63-79 = Robert Parker, "A Funerary Foundation from Hellenistic Lycia," Chiron 40 (2010) 103-120 = Ilias Arnaoutoglou, "Cultural Transfer and Law in Hellenistic Lycia: The Case of Symmasis’ Foundation," in Transferts culturels et droits dans le monde grec et hellénistique (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2012) 205–224 = SEG 58 (2008), no. 1640  = ID# 9329

 150-100 BCE


Block of marble with an inscription on three sides (94 x 34 cm; letter height: 1.1– 1.3 cm). Only the bottom half of the texts on each of the sides is preserved.

(A) … of coppersmiths (chalkeis).  Now if any surplus occurs from the interest, they will add it to the principal.  In addition to the normal portion, they will serve another portion of a hind–leg to Symmasis and another portion of a front–leg to his wife Mamma, (10) as long as Symmasis lives.  Whenever Symmasis passes from this life, they will give both portions to his wife Mamma.  Whenever she passes from this life, they will give them to my sons, and likewise to their descendants.  My sons Symmachos, (20) Hermaphilos, and Kleinos will attend the feasts, as well as my sons–in–law Ermaktybelis and Hermolykos, the sons of Tinzasis, from the Bellerophonteian subdivision and their descendants, from the very first (?) until there are ten.  Whenever any of these dies, the eldest of them (i.e. the descendants) will attend.  If there is any dispute, (30) the association of coppersmiths will judge—in the shrine of Leto—who should attend, and whatever they judge will be considered authoritative, so that not more than ten male relatives will attend. The managers (cheiristai) of the funds which Symmasis has given will lend the funds out at interest very securely, writing down in the contracts that these funds come from the legacy of Symmasis.  (40) But if the association of coppersmiths or some other person does something that goes against what has been written, let them pay 1000 drachmas that are sacred to the god Helios in every case.  The relatives of Symmasis and anyone else who wants to are allowed to prosecute for half of the fine.  (50) If it (i.e. the association) is not able to accomplish the sacrifices or the feasts because of war or some other civic problem, when the problem has been resolved… they should hold the sacrifices and feasts (?) …


(B) … it (i.e. the association [?]) decided that … the funds should always be (?) … taken up and administered by those chosen each year, in the present year by Hermolykos son of Kregdeis from the Iobateian subdivision, Inondes son of Hermokles from the Sarpedonian subdivision, Kleinos son of Symmasis, and Symmasis son of Sortios of the Araileiseusian subdivision (or: village).  Those who attended testified together that they would hold all of the funds, (10) on condition that: they will always keep the principal safe; they will spend the proceeds of the yearly interest on a perpetual, yearly sacrifice of a three–year–old castrated animal to the god Helios—who has strengthened Symmasis and his wife Mamma—on the 25th of the month of Loios; and, they will feast on that same day, (20) also celebrating the day named after Symmasis and his wife Mamma.  My sons, namely Symmachos, Hermaphilos, and Kleinos, sons of Symmasis, and my sons–in–law, namely Ermaktybelis and Hermolykos, sons of Tinzasis of the Bellerophonteian subdivision, will always attend the banquet each year. And (30) the leaders (archontes) who are chosen from the association of coppersmiths will always sacrifice a sacrificial goat or sheep to the hero of Symmasis and Mammas each year upon the altar which has been dedicated by him.  The managers, the other leaders, and the descendants written above will feast on that day by the tomb.  In addition to the normal (40) portion, they will also give to Symmasis son of Sortias another portion of the hind leg as long as he lives and, when he passes away, let the additional portion be served to my sons.  When these sons pass away, let that portion be given to the following generations of descendants forever.  They will be leaders of the sacrifice and the feast …


(C) … let them accomplish it in the remaining thirty days.  It is not lawful for anyone to remove, transfer, or use the funds given by Symmasis for any other purpose.  But if anyone removes, transfers or uses the funds for any other purpose, let him be considered guilty before the (10) god Helios and the other gods.  Let the culprits pay double the amount that they removed, and let the one prosecuting the case receive half the amount.  No one else has the authority to bury anyone in the tomb which has a lid made of a single stone and, if someone does, the one who buries someone here will—without a trial—owe 100 drachmas to the association mentioned above.  Also let the managers at that time (20) have authority to seize property from the violator as they choose.  The association of coppersmiths agreed to everything written above.  After a vote was taken, it was unanimously approved.  Witnesses: Idlaimis son of Midas and Attinas and Epigonos, sons of Hermadeiros, of the Bellerophonteian subdivision, leaders.

Written/translated by: Harland


[. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]|[. τ]ῶν χαλκέων, ἐὰν δέ τι πε|[ρ]ισσὸν γένηται τῶν τόκων, | προσάξουσιν εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον. || παραθήσουσιν δὲ Συµµασει | καὶ ἄλλην ἐπίκωλον µερίδα | ὀπισθίαν καὶ τῆς γυναικὸς αὐ|τ[ο]ῦ Μαµµας ἄλλην µερίδα ἐπ[ί]|κῶλον ἐµπροσθίαν ὅσον ἂν χρό||νον [ζ]ῇ Συµµασις πρὸ<ς> τῇ γεινο|µέ[ν]ῃ µερίδι. ὡς ἂν δὲ µεταλλά|ξῃ Συµµασις τὸν βίον δώσου|σιν τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ Μαµµᾳ | ἀµφοτέρας, ὡς ἂν δὲ καὶ αὔ||τη µεταλλάξῃ τὸν βίον δώ|σουσιν τοῖς υἱοῖς µου, ὁµοίω<ς> δὲ καὶ | ἀεὶ τοῖς ἐπιγεινοµένοις ἐκ τού|των. παρέσονται δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς | εὐωιχίας οἱ υἱοί µου Σύµµα||χος καὶ Ἑρµάφιλος καὶ Κλεῖ|νος καὶ οἱ γαµβροί µοι Ερµα|κτυβελις καὶ Ἑρµόλυκος οἱ | Τινζασιος Βελλεροφόντει|οι καὶ οἱ <τού>των ἐπιγεινόµενοι || οἱ πρῶτοι πρῶτοι ἕως ἂν γέ|νωνται δέκα. ὅταν δέ τις τού|των ἀποθάνῃ παρέσται ὁ πρε[σ]|βύτατος ἐκ τούτων. ἐὰν δέ τις | ἀνφιζβήτηισις γείνηιται, κρινεῖ || τὸ κοινὸν τῶν χαλκέων ἐν τῶι τῆς | Λητοῦς ἱερῶι ὁποῖον δεῖ παρεῖναι, κ[αὶ] | ὡς κρείνωσιν ἔσται κύρια<ι> ὥσ|τε µὴ πλείονας παρεῖναι τῶν | ἀνχιστέων ἀν[δ]ρῶν δέκα. τὸ δὲ || ἀργύριον ὃ δέδωκεν Συµµασις ἐ|κτοκιοῦσιν οἱ χιρισταὶ ὣς ὅτι ἀσ[φα]|λέστα <τα> προσγράφοντες ἐν τοῖς | συναλλάγµασιν ὅτι ἐστὶν τοῦ|το τὸ ἀργύριον τῆς Συµµασι||ος δόσεως. ἐὰν δὲ τὸ κοινὸν | [τ]ῶν χαλκέων µὴ ποιῇ ἢ ἄλ|λος τις κατὰ τὰ γεγραµ|µένα ἀποτ[ιν]έτωσαν οἱ α[ἴτι]|οι αὐτῶν < ͵Α καθ’ ἑκάστην || αἰτίαν ἱερὰς Ἡλίου καὶ ἐξέ|στω τοῖς Συµµασιος ἀν|χιστεῦσιν ἐκδικάζεσ|θαι καὶ ἄλλῳ τῶι βουλοµέ|νωι ἐπὶ τῶι ἡµίσει. ἐὰν || τὰς θυσίας ἢ εὐωχίας δι|ὰ πόλεµον ἢ ἄλλο τι πολι|τικὸν κώλυµα µὴ δύνηται ἐπι|τελέσαι λυθέντος τοῦ κωλύ|µατος vac.


[— — — — — — — — —] | ἐπέ[κρ]εινεν ἀνελέσθαι | καὶ χειρίζειν κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν | διὰ τῶν αἱρουµένων ἀεὶ | Ἑρµολύκῳ Κρεγδειτος Ἰοβα||τείῳ, Ινονδει Ἑρµοκλέους Σαρ|πηδονίωι, Κλείνῳ Συµµασιος καὶ | Συµµασει Σορτίου Αραιλεισευ|σιν· οἳ καὶ παρόντες ἀνθωµολο|γήσαντο ἀπέχειν τὸ ἀργύριον πᾶν, || ἐφ’ ᾧ τὸ µὲν ἀρχαῖον διατηρήσου|σιν σῶιον ἀεὶ τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον, | ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν προσ|πειπτόντων τόκων τῶν χω|ρούντων θύσουσιν εἰς τὸν ἅπαν||τα χρόνον ἀεὶ κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐµ | µηνὶ Λώιῳ τῆι εἰκάδι καὶ πέµπτῃ | το µίαν τριέτην Ἡλίῳ ὃς εὔξησεν | Συµµασιν καὶ Μαµµαν τὴν γυ|ναῖκα αὐτοῦ, καὶ εὐωχηθήσονται ἐν || ταύτῃ τῇ ἡµέρᾳ ἄγοντες ἐπώνυ|µον ἡµέραν Συµµασιος καὶ Μαµ|µας τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ, ἐπὶ δὲ τὴν | εὐωχίαν παρέσονται ἀεὶ κα|τ’ ἐνιαυτὸν οἱ υἱοί µου Σύµµα||χος καὶ Ἑρµάφιλος καὶ Κλεῖνος | οἱ Συµµασιος καὶ οἱ γαµβροί µ[ου (?)] | Ερµακτυβελις καὶ Ἑρµόλυκος | οἱ Τινζασιος Βελλεροφόντειο[ι], | θύσουσιν δὲ ἀεὶ κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ο[ἱ] || αἱρούµενοι ἄρχοντες τοῦ κοινοῦ | τῶν χαλκέων ἥρωι Συµµασιος | καὶ Μαµµας ἐπὶ τοῦ ἱδρυθησοµέ|νου ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ βωµοῦ ἱερεῖον αἴ|γεον <ἢ> προβάτεον· καὶ εὐωχηθή||σονται καὶ ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ἡµέρᾳ | πρὸς τῷ τάφῳ οἱ χειρισταὶ καὶ | οἱ ἄλλοι ἄρχοντες <καὶ> οἱ προγ[ε]|γραµµένοι ἀνχιστεῖς. δώσο[υ]|[σι]ν δὲ καὶ πρὸς τῇ γεινοµένῃ || [µ]ερίδι καὶ ἄλλην ἐπί κῶλον µε|ρίδα ὀπισθίαν Συµµασει Σο[ρ]|τίου ὅσον ἂν χρόνον ζῇ, ὅ|ταν δὲ µεταλλάξῃ προσ|παρατιθέτωσαν τοῖς υἱοῖς µου. || ὅταν δὲ καὶ οὗτοι µεταλλάξ[ω]|σιν διδότωσαν τοῖς ἐνγό[νοις] | διὰ γένους ἀεί. τῆς δὲ θυσ[ίας] | καὶ εὐωχίας προστήσονται.


[— — —] | [ἐπ]ιτελείτωσαν ἐν ἄλλαι[ς] | [ἡ]µέραις τριάκοντα. ἀπὸ δὲ | [τ]οῦ δεδοµένου ἀργυρίου ὑπὸ | Συµµασιος µηθενὶ ἐξέστω ἀφε||λεῖν ἢ µετενέγκαι <ἢ> εἰς ἄλ<λ>ο|ν καταχρήσασθαι . ἐὰν δέ | τις ἀφέλῃ ἢ µετενέγκῃ ἢ ε|ἰς ἄλλον καταχρήσηται ἁµα|[ρ]τωλὸς ἔστω Ἡλίου καὶ τῶν || ἄλλων θεῶν καὶ ἀποτινέτω|σαν οἱ αἴτιοι ὅσον ἂν ἀφέλω|σιν τοῦτο διπλοῦν καὶ ἔστω | ἐγδικασία τῷ βουλοµένωι ἐ|πὶ τῷ ἡµίσει. εἰς δὲ τὸν τάφον || µηθενὶ ἐξουσία ἔστω θάψαι | οὗ ἐστὶν τὸ πῶµα µονόλι|θον ἢ ὀφειλέτω τῶι κοινῶι | τῶι προγεγραǀµµένωι < ρ´ | ὁ θάψας καθάπερ ἐγ δίκης, || καὶ κύριοι ἔστωσαν ἐνεχυρά|ζοντες ὡς ἂν προαιρῶνται [ο]ἱ | κατ’ ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν ὄντες | χειρισταί. ἐπὶ δὲ τοῖς προγεγραµ|µένοις πᾶσιν εὐδόκησεν τὸ κοινὸν || τῶν χαλκέων· ἀναδοθείσης ψήφου , ἐ|κρίθη πᾶσαις. µάρτυρες Ιδλαιµις | Μίδου, Ἀττινας Ἐπίγονος οἱ Ερµαδε|[ι]ρου Βελλεροφόντειοι ἀρχόντων.

Item added: January 20, 2013
Item modified: February 14, 2015
ID number: 9329
Short link address:


  • Markus Oehler says:
    May 13, 2014 / Reply

    Hi friends,
    I fear that the reference to SEG 54:1448 is wrong. It should be – at least as far as I could check on the online version of SEG – 58:1640. It was first published in 2007. Or am I totally wrong?
    Greetings, Markus

    • Phil Harland says:
      June 3, 2014 / Reply

      Thanks, Markus! I have corrected it now.

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