Associations in the Greco-Roman World (AGRW)

An expanding collection of inscriptions, papyri, and other sources in translation

[22] Regulations for a Sanctuary and Association of the God Men Tyrannos (ca. 200 CE) Laureion - Attica


Laureion (Attica, Greece and Macedonia — Pleiades map)
AGRW 22 = GRA I 53 = IG II² 1365 + IG II² 1366 = CMRDM I 12 + CMRDM I 13 = PHI 3581  = ID# 3179

 ca. 200 CE

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Two monuments with similar inscriptions, now in the Epigraphical Museum, Athens. IG II² 1365 has an inscribed crescent at the top, which may have been painted. IG II² 1366 (a later expanded version) has a large, deeply incised, U-shaped crescent at the top, which resembles a horse-shoe. At the base is a large lug used to secure the stone in place. Men is a moon god particularly attested in the region of Phrygia in Asia Minor. The founder of this cult, Xanthos, is an immigrant from the region of Lycia, south of Phrygia.

(IG II2 1365 – Version 1)

Xanthos the Lycian consecrated the sanctuary of Men – the god having chosen him.

To good fortune! No one shall enter while impure, but let him be purified after eating garlic and pork.

And no one shall offer sacrifice without the permission of the founder. If anyone does this by force, the sacrifice will be unacceptable to the god. The sacrifice shall include what is prescribed for the god: a right leg, the skin, olive oil for the altar, a lamp, and a libation.

Let him be purified from contact with a corpse on the tenth day; from menstruation on the seventh day; but do not let a murderer around the place; from miscarriage (or: abortion) on the fortieth day; from intercourse with a woman on the same day, having washed themselves from head to foot. May the god be merciful to those who serve the god with a simple soul.

If the founder dies or is sick or out of town, let people serve the god with the approval of the one to whom the founder hands over authority.

Anyone who is a busybody or meddles will incur sin against Men Tyrannos (“Absolute-Ruler”) that cannot be expiated. Let him give to the priest a head and feet and a breast.

(IG  II2 1366 – Version 2)

Xanthos the Lycian slave of Gaius Orbius, consecrated the sanctuary of Men Tyrannos (“Absolute Ruler”) – the god having chosen him.

To good fortune! No one shall enter while impure, but let them be purified after eating garlic or pork and after intercourse with women.

When members have washed from head to foot on the same day, they may enter. And a woman, having washed from head to foot for seven days after menstruation, may enter on the same (i.e., seventh) day. And likewise for ten days after contact with a corpse, and forty days after a miscarriage (or: abortion).

Nor shall anyone offer sacrifice without the permission of the founder of the sanctuary. If anyone does this by force, the sacrifice will be unacceptable to the god. The sacrificer shall provide what is prescribed for the god, a right leg, the skin, head, feet, breast, olive oil for the altar, a lamp, kindling, and a libation. May the god be merciful to those who serve with a simple soul.

If the founder dies or is sick or out of town, let no one have authority except the one to whom he hands it over.

Anyone who is a busybody or interferes with the property of the god will incur sin against Men Tyrannos which he certainly cannot expiate.

And the one who offers sacrifices on the seventh day of the month should perform all that is appropriate for the god. Let him receive a leg and shoulder from the sacrifice which is brought; let the remainder be cut up at the temple. And if anyone offers a sacrifice to the god from new moon till the fifteenth and if someone fills a table for the god, let him receive a half-portion of its contents.

Those who wish may convene a contribution-society (eranos) for Men Tyrannos for good fortune. Likewise, the contributors (eranistai) shall provide what is appropriate for the god, a right leg, hide, a liquid measure (kotylē) of oil, a liquid measure (chous) of wine (about 3.25 litres), a dry measure (choinix) worth of cake, three sacred cakes, two measures (choinikes) of small cakes, and fruit. If the contributors hold a banquet, they shall provide a wreath and a woolen fillet. May the god be very merciful to those who approach with simplicity.

Translation by: Kloppenborg



IG II2 1365

[face A. front, starting at line 1]

Ξάνθος | Λύκιος | καθειδρούσατο | ἱερὸν τοῦ || Μηνὸς | Τυράννου | αἱρετίσαντος τοῦ θε|οῦ, ἐπ’ ἀγαθῇ τύχῃ καὶ μη|θένα ἀκάθαρτον προσάγειν· κα||θαρισζέστω δὲ ἀπὸ σκόρ|δων καὶ χοιρέων· καὶ μηθένα | θυσιάσζειν ἄνευ̣ τοῦ καθι|δρουσαμένου· ἐὰν δέ τις βιάση|ται, ἀπρόσδεκτος ἡ θυσία παρὰ || τοῦ θεοῦ. παρέχειν δὲ καὶ τῶι | θεῶι τὸ καθῆκον, δεξιὸν σκέ|λος καὶ δορὰν καὶ ἔλαιον ἐπὶ βω|μὸν καὶ λύχ<ν>ον καὶ σπονδήν. καὶ | ἀπὸ νεκροῦ καθαρίσζεσται δεκα||τ<αί>αν, ἀπὸ γυναικέων ἑβ<δ>ομαία<ν>, | ἀνδροφόνον μηδὲ περὶ τὸν τό|πον, ἀπὸ δὲ φθορᾶς τετταρα|κοσταίαν, ἀπὸ δὲ γυναικὸς λου|σάμενοι κατακέφαλα αὐθειμε||ρί. εὐίλατος γένοιτο ὁ θεὸς τοῖς | θεραπεύουσιν ἁπλῇ τῇ ψυχῇ. | ἐὰν δέ τινα ἀνθρώπινα πάσχῃ ἢ | ἀσθενήσῃ ἢ ἀποδημήσῃ, θεραπευέ[τω] | τὸν θεὸν ὧι ἂν αὐτὸς παραδῶ̣ι· ὃς ἂν δ[ὲ] || πολυπραγμονήσῃ ἢ περιεργάσητα[ι], | ἁμαρτίαν ὀφ[ει]λέτω Μηνὶ Τυράννῳ, | ἣν οὐκ ἐξειλάσεται. διδότω κε̣- [face B right, starting at line 12] |φαλὴ<ν> | καὶ | πόδας <καὶ> || στηθύ|νιον.

IG II2 1366

Ξάνθος Λύκιος Γαΐου Ὀ̣ρβίου καθειδρύσατο ἱερ[ὸν τοῦ Μηνὸς] | Τυράννου, αἱρετίσαντος τ̣ο̣ῦ θεοῦ, ἐπ’ ἀγαθῇ τύχῃ· καὶ [μηθένα] | ἀκάθαρτον προσάγειν· καθαριζέστω δὲ ἀπὸ σκ̣όρδων κα[ὶ χοιρέων] | κα[ὶ γ]υναικός· λουσαμένους δὲ κατακέφαλα αὐθημερὸν εἰσ[πορεύ]||εσθα<ι>· καὶ ἐκ τῶν γυναικέων διὰ ἑπτὰ ἡμερῶν λουσαμένην κ[ατα]|κέφαλα εἰσπορεύεσθαι αὐθημερόν· καὶ ἀπὸ νεκροῦ διὰ ἡμερῶν δ[έκα] | καὶ ἀπὸ φθορᾶς ἡμερῶν τετταράκοντα, καὶ μηθένα θυσιάζειν ἄνε[υ] | τοῦ καθειδρυσαμένου τὸ ἱερόν· ἐὰν δέ τις βιάσηται, ἀπρόσδεκτος | ἡ θυσία παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ· παρέχειν δὲ καὶ τῶι θεῶι τὸ καθῆκον, δεξιὸν || σκέλος καὶ δορὰν καὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ πόδας καὶ στηθύνιον καὶ ἔλαιον | ἐπὶ βωμὸν καὶ λύχνον καὶ σχίζας καὶ σπονδήν, καὶ εὐείλατος | γένοιτ̣ο ὁ θεὸς τοῖς θεραπεύουσιν ἁπλῇ τῇ ψυχῇ· ἐὰν δέ τινα | ἀνθρώπινα πάσχῃ ἢ ἀσθενήσῃ ἢ ἀποδημήσῃ που, μηθένα ἀνθρώ|πων ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν, ἐὰν μὴ ὧι ἂν αὐτὸς παραδῶι. ὃς ἂν δὲ πολυ||πραγμονήσῃ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἢ περιεργάσηται, ἁμαρτίαν ὀφειλέτω Μηνὶ | Τυράννωι, ἣν οὐ μὴ δύνηται ἐξειλάσασθαι. ὁ δὲ θυσιάζων τῇ ἑβδόμῃ | τὰ καθήκοντα πάντα ποιείτωι τῶι θεῶι· λαμβανέτωι δὲ τῆς θυσίας ἧς | ἂν φέρῃ σκέλος καὶ ὦμον, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ κατακοπτέτ̣ω <ἐν τῶι> ἱερῶι· εἰ δέ τις |〚εἰ δέ τις〛 προσφέρει θυσίαν τῶι θεῶι, ἐγ νουμηνίας μέχρι πεντεκαι||δεκάτης· ἐὰν δέ τις τράπεζαν πληρῶι τῶι θεῶι, λαμβανέτω τὸ ἥμισ[υ]· | τοὺς δὲ βουλομένους ἔρανον συνάγειν Μηνὶ Τυράννωι ἐπ’ ἀγαθῆι τύ[χηι]. | ὁμοίως δὲ παρέξ̣ουσιν οἱ ἐρανισταὶ τὰ καθήκοντα τῶι θεῶι, δε[ξιὸν] | σκέλος καὶ δορὰν καὶ κοτύλην ἐλαίου καὶ χοῦν οἴνου καὶ να[στὸν χοινι]|κιαῖον καὶ ἐφίερα τρία καὶ κολλύβων χοίνικες δύο καὶ ἀκρό[αμα, ἐ]||ὰν κατακλιθῶσιν οἱ ἐρανισταὶ καὶ στέφανον καὶ λημνίσ[κον]· | καὶ εὐείλατος γένοιτο τοῖς ἁπλῶς προσπορευομένοι[ς]. | vac.

Item added: September 18, 2012
Item modified: October 16, 2017
ID number: 3179
Short link address:
http://www.philipharland.com/greco-roman-associations/?p=3179

One Comment

  • Wolfgang Ernst says:
    May 27, 2015 / Reply

    Greek text reads: ἀκρό[αμα but the english translation is “fruits” (prop. following here Horsley or Sokolowski).

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